A four legged Jacket structure weighing approximately 9447 tonnes in air (incl. piles, grout, marine growth etc.). The Jacket has sixteen piles in total (4 x 4 skirt piles) each of which was cut approximately 2m below the mud line.
The removal method has the jacket being lifted with the two main hooks via two spreader bars that are connected to the top of the jacket in a restraint frame arrangement; the two spreader bars are then connected in the lower part to the jacket piles with 8 2000t ILTs via 4 slings connecting each to two ILTs. The main activities are as follows:
The ILT device is modeled with 13 rigid bodies, a center mandrel and 12 wedges. By using the penalty contact model, the actuation of the wedges by the $9^\circ$ conical surface from the axial load is possible by using frictionless contact between the mandrel and the wedges along the conical surfaces. Each wedge has a 630 mm x 160 mm contact patch. The assumed coefficient of friction between the contact patch and the pile ID is assumed to be a relatively low 0.3.
In addition to the contact between the central mandrel and the wedges, the actuation is controlled by three types of connector elements:
The parameters of the grout concrete damaged plasticity model were varied based on design compressive strength, compressive and tensile strength from tests, and assumed elastic modulus (see Calculation of grout elastic modulus and Statistical analysis of grout test data). The results indicate that ultimate capacity of the pile/sleeve joint is controlled by the pile. The displacement at which the ultimate capacity is reached is smaller for higher strength and stiffer grouts. The load at which the force versus displacement curve becomes non-linear due to grout crushing and cracking is approximately the same for all of the models.
Significant grout crushing occurs at the ILT beyond 3500 tonne. Below the ILT, the only damage occurs due to tensile cracking in the vicinity of the shear beads. This damage is expected and does not effect the shear transfer from the pile to the sleeve.